Bibliography

Romantic Illustration Network:
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If you have any suggestions for texts we should include, or would like us to add your book or article, please email
Katie Snow at ks596@exeter.ac.uk

Allen, Graham. ‘Shelley as Visual Artist: Doodles, Sketches, Ink Blots, and the Critical Reception of the Visual.’  Studies in Romanticism, 60 no. 3, 2021: 277-306.

Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Harvard UP, 1978.

Altick, Richard D. Painting from Books: Art and Literature in Britain 1760-1900. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1985.

Baker, James. The Business of Satirical Prints in Late-Georgian England. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Bartram, Alan. Five Hundred Years of Book Design. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Benton, Michael. Studies in the spectator role: Literature, painting and pedagogy. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Bettley, James, ed. The Art of the Book: From Medieval Manuscript to Graphic Novel. London: V and A Publications, 2001.

Bland, David. The Illustration of Books. Faber and Faber, 1951.

Bland, David. A History of Book Illustration: The Illuminated Manuscript and the Printed Book. Second Edition. Faber and Faber, 1969.

Blewett, David. The Illustration of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1995.

Bonnell, Thomas Frank. The Most Disreputable Trade: publishing the classics of English poetry 1765-1810. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Brenni, Vito Joseph. Book Illustration and Decoration: A Guide to Research. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Breton, Rob. “Portraits of the Poor in Early Nineteenth-Century Radical Journalism,” Journal of Victorian Culture 21:2 (2016), 168-83.

Brewer, John. The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century. 1997; Routledge, 2013. Chapter 11, ‘Borrowing, Copying and Collecting’.

Briggs, Jo. Novelty Fair: British visual culture between Chartism and the Great Exhibition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Brown, John Buchanan. Early Victorian Illustrated Books: Britain, France and Germany 1820-1860. London: British Library and Oak Knoll Press, 2005.

Bryan, Michael. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers: Biographical and Critical. New ed., rev. and enl., ed. Robert Edmund Graves. London: G. Bell, 1886-1889.

Brylowe, Thora. Romantic Art in Practice: Cultural Work and the Sister Arts, 1760–1820. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Bryson, Norman et al, eds. Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Burwick, Frederick. “James Gillray and the Aporia of Visual Hermeneutics,” Romantic Explorations, ed. Michael Meyer. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2011. Pp. 85-103.

Burwick, Frederick.“The Hermeneutics of Lichtenberg’s Interpretation of Hogarth,” The Lessing Yearbook 19 (1987): 167‑191.

Burwick, Frederick. “Lessing’s Laokoon and the rise of Visual Hermeneutics,” Poetics Today XX, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 219-272.

Cale, Luisa. Fuseli’s Milton Gallery: ‘Turning readers into spectators’. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006.

Clayton, Timothy. ‘The London Printsellers and the Export of English Graphic Prints” in Kremers, Anorthe and Reich, Elisabeth. (eds.) Loyal Subversion? Caricatures from the Personal Union between England and Hanover (1714-1837). Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Reprecht, 2014. Pp. 140-62.

Cubitt, Sean. Digital Aesthetics. Sage, 1998 [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/slade/digita/index.html]

Dabydeen, David. Hogarth’s Blacks: Images of Blacks in Eighteenth Century English Art. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987.

Daly, Peter M. et al eds. Word and Visual Imagination: Studies in the Interaction of English Literature and the Visual Arts. Germany: Universitatsbund Erlangen-Nurnberg, 1988.

Davidson, Peter. The Book Encompassed: Studies in Twentieth Century Biography. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 1992.

Delamaire, Marie-Stéphanie and Slauter, Will. (eds.) Circulation and Control: Artistic Culture and Intellectual Property in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2021.

Dias, Rosemarie. ‘“A World of Pictures”: Pall Mall and the Topography of Display, 1780-1799’ in Miles Ogborn and Charles Withers, Georgian Geographies: Space, Place and Landscape in the Eighteenth Century.’ Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

Dickie, Simon. Cruelty and Laughter: Forgotten Comic Literature and the Unsentimental Eighteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Duff, David. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of British Romanticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Eaves, Morris. ‘The sister arts in British Romanticism’. The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism. Second Edition Ed. Stuart Curran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. 229-61.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Essick, Robert N. “Visual/Verbal Relationships in Book Illustration.” In British Art 1740-1820: Essays in Honor of Robert R. Wark. Ed Guilland Sutherland. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1992.

Faxon, Frederick W. Literary Annual and Gift Books: A Bibliography. Private Libraries Association, 1973.

Ferguson, Olivia. “Walter Scott and the Future of Caricature in the Novel,” Studies in Romanticism, 60 no. 2, 2021: 205-227.

Ferris, Ina, and Paul Keen, eds. Bookish Histories: Books, Literature, and Commercial Modernity, 1700-1900. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan 2009.

Finkelstein, David Book History Reader. London: Routledge, 2002.

Ford, Brian J. Images of Science: A History of Scientific Illustration. London: British Library, 1992; rpt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Fried, Michael. Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and the Beholder in the Age of Diderot. Berkeley: California University Press, 1980.

Garside, Peter. ‘Illustrating the Waverley Novels: Scott, Scotland, and the London Print Trade, 1819-1836’, The Library, 11 (2010), 168-96.

—. ‘Print Illustrations and the Cultural Materialism of Scott’s Waverley Novels’ in British Literature and Print Culture, ed. Sandro Jung. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013. Pp. 125-57.

Gatrell, Vic. City of Laughter: Sex and Satire in Eighteenth Century London. London: Atlantic, 2006.

Gerard, William Blake. Lawrence Sterne and the Visual Imagination. Farnham: Ashgate, 2006.

Golden, Catherine J. Book Illustrated: Text, Image, and Culture 1770-1930. New Castle: Oak Knoll Press, 2000.

Godfrey, Richard T. and Hallett, Mark. (eds.) James Gillray: The Art of Caricature. London: Tate Publishing, 2001.

Goldman, Paul. ‘Defining Illustration Studies: Towards a New Academic Discipline’, Chapter 1 of Paul Goldman and Simon Cooke, eds, Reading Victorian Illustration, 1855-1875: Spoils of the Lumber Room. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012.

Gollapudi, Aparna. ‘Selling Celebrity: Actors’ Portraits in Bell’s Shakespeare and Bell’s British Theatre’. Eighteenth Century Life, Volume 36, Number 1, Winter 2012.

Gordon, Catherine M. British Painting of Subjects from the English Novel New York: Garland, 1988.

Haggarty, Sarah. ‘Blake’s Newton, Line-Drawing, and Geometry.’ Studies in Romanticism, 60 no. 2, 2021: 123-151.

Hammelmann, Hanns. Book Illustrators in Eighteenth-Century England. Edited and completed by T.S.R. Boase. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1975.

Harris, Katherine D. “Fantasies of Containment: Archiving Moments in Cyber- and Real-Life.” Metaphors of Cyberspace. Ed. Caroline Maun.

Harthan, John. The History of the Illustrated Book: The Western Tradition. London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

Haywood, Ian. Romanticism and Caricature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

—. ‘Pandemonium: Radical Soundscapes and Satirical Prints in the Romantic period’, Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts, 5, 2 (2016). 

—. “The Life of William Cobbett: caricature, hauntology and the impossibility of radical life writing in the Romantic Period” in A History of British Working-Class Literature. Goodridge, J. & Keegan, B. (eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017. Pp. 176-194.

—. ‘Hazlitt and the Monarchy: Legitimacy, Radical Print Culture, and Caricature’, The Hazlitt Review 9 (2016), 5-26.

Hazlitt, William. Sketches of the Principal Picture Galleries in England. London: Taylor and Hessey,1824.

Heffernen, James A. W. ed., Space, Time, Image, Sign: Essays on Literature and the Visual Arts. Bern:Peter Lang, 1987.

Hill, Richard. ‘The Illustration of the Waverley Novels: Scott and Popular Illustrated Fiction’, Scottish Literary Review, 1.1 (2009), 69-88.

Hill, Richard. Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

Hillis Miller, J. Illustration. London: Reaktion Books, 1992.

Hodnett, Edward. Image and Text: Studies in the Illustration of English Literature. London: Scolar Press, 1982.

—. Five Centuries of English Book Illustration. London: Scolar Press, 1988.

Hofer, Philip. Eighteenth Century Book Illustration. Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1956.

Höltgen, Karl Josef, Peter M. Daly and Wolfgang Lottes, eds. Word and Visual Imagination: Studies in the Interaction of English Literature and the Visual Arts. Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1988.

Hunnisett, Basil. Steel Engraved Book Illustration in England. London: Scolar Press, 1980.

Ionescu, Christina and Renata Schellenberg eds. Word and Image in the Long Eighteenth Century: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008.

James, Philip. English bookillustration 1800-1900. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1947.

John, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago UP, 1998.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Illustrated Pocket Diaries and the Commodification of Culture’, Eighteenth-Century Life, 37.3 (2013): 53-84.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Packaging, Design and Colour: From Fine-Printed to Small-Format Editions of Thomson’s The Seasons, 1793-1802’ in Sandro Jung, ed, British Literature and Print Culture, The English Association Essays and Studies 66 (D. S. Brewer, 2013), 97-124.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Print Culture, High-Cultural Consumption, and Thomson’s The Seasons, 1780-1797′, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 44 (2011): 495-514.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Thomas Stothard’s Illustrations for The Royal Engagement Pocket Atlas, 1779-1826′, The Library, 12.1 (2011): 3-22.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Visual Interpretations, Print, and Illustrations of Thomson’s The Seasons, 1730–1797’, Eighteenth Century Life 34. 2 (Spring 2010), 23-64.

Katz, Bill, ed. A History of Book Illustration: 29 Points of View. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1994.

Keymer, Thomas and Peter Sabor. Pamela in the Marketplace: Literary Controversy and Print Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 2006. See especially chapter 5, “Illustrations and the Visual Culture of the Novel”.

Kremers, Anorthe and Reich, Elisabeth. (eds.) Loyal Subversion? Caricatures from the Personal Union between England and Hanover (1714-1837). Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Reprecht, 2014.

Kress, Gunter, amd Theo van Leeuwen. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge, 1996.

Kroeber, Karl and William Walling. Images of Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.

Landseer, John. Lectures on the Art of Engraving. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme,1807.

Levarie, Norma. The Art and History of Books. New Castle: Oak Knoll Press, 1995.

Lewine, J. Bibliography of Eighteenth-Century Art and Illustrated Books: Being a Guide to Collections of Illustrated Works in English and French of the Period. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, 1898.

Matthews, Susan, Blake, Sexuality and Bourgeois Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Maxwell, Richard. The Victorian Illustrated Book. Charlottesville: Virginia University Press, 2002.

McCreery, Cindy. The Satirical Gaze: Prints of Women in Late Eighteenth-Century England. London: Clarendon Press, 2004.

Melville, Stephen W. (ed). Vision and Textuality. London: Macmillan, 1991.

Miller, John. Religion in Popular Prints, 1600-1832. Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey, 1986.

Mitchell, W. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1987.

Mole, Tom. Romanticism and Celebrity Culture: 1750-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Möller, Joachim (ed.). Imagination on a Long Rein: English Literature Illustrated. Marburg: Jonas, 1988.

Moores, John Richard. Representations of France in English Satirical Prints 1740-1832. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Myrone, Martin, and Lucy Peltz, ed. Producing the Past: Aspects of Antiquarian Culture and Practice, 1700-1850. Preface by Stephen Bann. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999.

Odumosu, Temi. Africans in English Caricature: Black Jokes, White Caricature 1769- 1819. London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 2017.

O’Rourke, Stephanie.  Art, Science, and the Body in Early Romanticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Piper, Andrew. Dreaming in Books: the making of the bibliographic imagination in the Romantic Period. Chicago, 2009.

Piper, David. The Image of the Poet. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.

Pop, Andrei. Antiquity, Theatre, and the Painting of Henry Fuseli. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Praz, Mario. Mnemosyne: The Parallel Between Literature and the Visual Arts. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Quinsey, Katherine M. (ed.) Animals and Human: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2017.

Rabb, Melinda. ‘Johnson, Lilliput and Eighteenth-Century Miniature’, Eighteenth Century Studies 46. 2 (2013)

Raven, James. Judging New Wealth: Popular Publishing and Responses to Commerce in England, 1750-1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Raven, James. The Business of Books 1450-1850. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Ray, Gordon N. The Illustrator and the Book in England from 1790-1914. Pierpont Morgan Library: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Read, Dennis M. R. H. Cromek: Engraver, Editor and Entrepreneur. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

Roberto, Rose. ‘(Re)assembling Reference Books and Recycling Images: The Wood Engravings of the W. and R. Chambers Firm’ in Delamaire, Marie-Stéphanie and Slauter, Will. (eds.) Circulation and Control: Artistic Culture and Intellectual Property in the Nineteenth Century. 2021. Pp. 295-336.

Rosenthal, Angela. (ed.) No Laughing Matter: Visual Humours in Ideas of Race, Nationality, and Ethnicity. New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Press, 2016. See especially Hart, Katherine. ‘James Gillray, Charles James Fox, and the Abolition of the Slave Trade: Caricature and Displacement in the Debate over Reform.’ Pp. 76-103.

Russell, Gillian. The Ephemeral Eighteenth Century: Print, Sociability, and the Cultures of Collecting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Sabor, Peter. ‘Illustrations of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920’ Eighteenth-Century Fiction. 9 (1996): 122-124.

Sillars, Stuart. Painting Shakespeare: The Artist as Critic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

The Illustrated Shakespeare, 1709-1875. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2008.

Shepherd, Lynn. Clarissa’s Painter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Skelly, Julia. The Uses of Excess in Visual and Material Culture, 1600-2010. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2014.

Skilton, David. ‘The Relation between Illustration and Text in the Victorian Novel: A New Perspective’ in Höltgen, Word and Visual Imagination: Studies in the Interaction of English Literature and the Visual Arts. Erlangen-Nurnberg, 1988.Pp. 303-19.

Solkin, David H. ed. Art on the Line: The Royal Academy Exhibitions at Somerset House 1780-1836. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001.

Solkin, David. Painting for Money: The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Smiles,Sam. Eye Witness: Artists and Visual Documentation in Britain 1770-1830. Farnham: Ashgate, 2000.

Smith, Keith A. Structure of the Visual Book. 4th ed. Keith A. Smith Books: 2003.

Stafford, Barbara. Good Looking: Essays on the Virtue of Images. MIT, 2003.

St Clair, William. The Reading Nation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Stewart, Garrett. The Look of Reading: Book, Painting, Text. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2006.

Tattersfield, Nigel. John Bewick: Engraver on Wood, 1760-1795: An Appreciation of His Life, together with an Annotated Catalogue of his Illustrations and Designs. London: British Library; New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll, 2001.

Thackeray, William. ‘Pictures of Life and Character. By John Leech’ (1854), Critical Papers on Art. London: Macmillan, 1904.

Thomas. Julia. Pictorial Victorians: The Inscription of Value in Word and Image. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Thomas, Sophie. “Poetry and Illustration” in The Blackwell Companion to Romantic Poetry, ed. Charles Mahoney (Blackwell, 2011), pp. 354-373.

Wagner, Peter. (ed.) Icons, Texts, Iconotexts: Essays on Ekphrasis and Intermediality. Berlin, 1996.

Walters, Gwyn. “Developments in the Study of Book Illustration.” The Book Encompassed: Studies in Twentieth-Century Bibliography. Ed. Peter Davison. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Wendorf, Richard. Articulate Images: The Sister Arts from Hogarth to Tennyson. Minneapolis:Minnesota University Press, 1983.

Westover, Paul. ‘Illustration, Historicism, and Travel: The Legacy of Sir Walter Scott’, in Necromanticism: Traveling to Meet the Dead, 1750-1860. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Pp. 142-73.

Whiteley, William T. Artists and Their Friends in England, 1700-1799. 1928; reprinted New York: Benjamin Blom, 1968.

Recent Posts

“With feelings which I cannot describe”: How Illustrators of Fin-de-Siècle Romance Fiction Depicted Wonders Surpassing Human Description

by Kate Holterhoff

Kate Holterhoff received her doctorate from Carnegie Mellon University and is currently an Affiliated Researcher at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her new monograph, Illustration in Fin-de-Siècle Transatlantic Romance Fiction (Routledge, 2022) is available now.

This post contains excerpts from the Introduction of Kate’s monograph.

Figure 1. (Left) E. K. Johnson, “I took this cold fragment of mortality in my hand, and looked at it in the light of the lamp with feelings which I cannot describe” from She, A History of Adventure by H. Rider Haggard in The Graphic, 34, no. 883 (30 October 1886): 469. 
(Right) Charles Kerr, “Holly and Billali” from She, A History of Adventure by H. Rider Haggard (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912): 110.

Although horrors and wonders exceeding the bounds of human perception and understanding were conventional in late-Victorian and Edwardian romance fictions, the illustrations which appeared beside these marvels suggested that, when it comes to visual paratexts, quite the opposite was thought to be the case. When fin-de-siècleillustrators undertook the task of illuminating moments that novelists left opaque, artworks challenged these wonders’ supposed inexpressibility. Illustrations from many of the most popular and wild-minded fictions published between 1885 and 1920 round out the reader’s aesthetic, narrative, cultural, and emotional experience, and therefore can never be mimetic reflections of authorial intent. 

Both realist and romance fictions were illustrated during the late nineteenth century for their initial serializations, but there is good reason to focus on romance illustrations particularly. The Romance Revival was tremendously visual, not only because of illustration’s ubiquity, but also owing to the type of wonders described. Readers were struck by romance fiction’s spectacles, which profoundly surpassed reader’s lived experiences. Robert Louis Stevenson points to the form’s optic qualities in “A Gossip on Romance” (1882), explaining that a good story must “repeat itself in a thousand coloured pictures to the eye.” (1) Tableaus of wonder made deep and lasting impressions upon audiences. Indeed, Graham Greene notes that H. Rider Haggard’s fictions “fixed pictures in our minds that thirty years have been unable to wear away.” (2)] The illustrations which accompanied these fictions did more than mimetically reproduce romance’s visually impressive supernatural wonders, advanced technologies, violent battles, great feats of heroism, and titillating romantic trysts. By engaging the notion of inexpressibility, these graphic paratexts deepen romance fiction’s plots. 

In H. Rider Haggard’s She (1887), for instance, narrator Horace Holly and his adult ward Leo Vincey journey to darkest Africa in search of the immortal and supernaturally powerful Queen Ayesha, or She-who-must-be-obeyed. Although wonders and adventures occur throughout, one of the most frequently illustrated portions of She shows Holly pondering a white, mummified foot (see fig. 1). This dismembered and perfectly preserved appendage is all that remains of a beautiful mummy that Billali, the adventurers’ Amahagger guide to Ayesha’s kingdom of Kôr, had become enamored with in his youth. In fact, it was Billali’s mother who burned all but this mummy’s extremity to end her son’s unnatural infatuation. After learning the foot’s remarkable history Holly explains that he, “took this cold fragment of mortality in my hand and looked at it in the light of the lamp with feelings which I cannot describe, so mixed up were they between astonishment, fear, and fascination.” (3) This supernaturally unspoiled foot—its appearance, materiality, and history—resonates so deeply with Haggard’s narrator that verbalizing, or even processing, his complex emotions becomes impossible. It touches on something much deeper than horror or antiquarian interest. Although Haggard leaves the substance of the foot’s mystery open to the interpretation of readers, artists beginning with E. K. Johnson (illustrator for The Graphic and Harper’s Weekly’s serializations), and followed by Charles Kerr (co-illustrator with Maurice Greiffenhagen for the 1888 Longmans, London, book edition), have sought to convey its power and seductiveness. 

What made Haggard’s illustrators not only willing, but also eager, to show a marvel that Haggard will not, and Holly “cannot describe”? Rendering indescribable scenes like this eerie drama in She, but also includingfictional technologies, lands, creatures, peoples, and circumstances graphically allowed these artists to add both concrete detail and greater mystery to these incredible stories. I focus on romance fiction because these texts were visualized despite, or perhaps because, authors explicitly wrestled with ideas of ineffability. Far from being put off by wild visions of terror and wonder, portraying incidents characterized as surpassing the author’s or narrator’s expressive abilities invigorated artists. Whether on purpose or accident, by including indescribable marvels authors granted their illustrators near total liberty to fill in gaps in the reader’s understanding. These unimaginable moments permit word and image to labor hand-in-hand, deepening the audience’s engagement with a text’s more profound themes. 


My monograph Illustration in Fin-de-Siècle Transatlantic Romance Fiction (2022) sets out to investigate the literary, historical, cultural, and aesthetic clues illuminating how images in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-centuryBritish and American romance fiction enabled artists to visualize wonders thought to surpass human description. In the process, I point to the innovative collaborations that authors, illustrators, and publishers forged to describe the ostensibly ineffable. The book is divided into five chapters focusing on a single author, genre, and theme. Each begins with a broad history of illustration within the genre, but then focuses on one canonical late-nineteenth-century author as a case study. Chapter one examines how unimaginable because bygone eras appeared in Robert Louis Stevenson’s historical romances Treasure Island and The Black Arrow. Chapter two examines the pictorially-resistant convention in children’s fiction of expressive animals in Rudyard Kipling’s “Her Majesty’s Servants,” “Toomai of the Elephants,” and “How the Camel Got His Hump” (two stories from The Jungle Books and one from the Just So Stories, respectively). The third chapter explores several indescribably powerful and sexually alluring African women from H. Rider Haggard’s adventure fictions, focusing particularly upon the characters of Nanea from Black Heart and White Heart, Maiwa from Maiwa’s Revenge, and Ayesha as she appears in the She franchise. Chapter four surveys and assesses pictures of incredible technologies from several of H. G. Wells’s fictions, including “In The Abyss,” The War of the WorldsWhen the Sleeper Wakes, and A Story of the Days to Come. Fanciful machines often defy description, either owing to the narrator’s inability to characterize them faithfully, or else because they were too advanced to describe using nineteenth-century analogies. The final chapter examines illustrations that engage the unspeakable horror of cannibalism conducted by and upon supposedly civilized white persons, looking especially at Harper’s Weekly’s serialization of James De Mille’s imperial Gothic romance A Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder

Illustration in Fin-de-Siècle Transatlantic Romance Fiction studies illustrations created to enhance romance fiction plots incorporating magic, technology, desire, violence, and other marvels that thwart written representation because these multimodal texts provide illustrators with the dual burden and opportunity of visualizing unspeakable ideas. I endeavor to better understand the complex bonds joining word to image in order to plumb what romance illustrations of indescribable marvels can, and do, accomplish.

(1) H. Rider Haggard, She, ed. Andrew M. Stauffer (Peterborough: Broadview, 2006), 117

(2) Robert Louis Stevenson, “A Gossip on Romance,” Longman’s Magazine 1 (November 1882): 69.

(3) Graham Greene, Collected Essays (New York: The Viking Press, 1969), 209.

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