Bibliography

Romantic Illustration Network:
Select Bibliography

If you have any suggestions for texts we should include, or would like us to add your book or article, please email
Dustin Frazier Wood at Dustin.FrazierWood@roehampton.ac.uk.

Journal of Illustration Studies (Cardiff, 2007)

Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Harvard UP, 1978.

Altick, Richard D. Painting from Books: Art and Literature in Britain 1760-1900. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1985.

Bartram, Alan. Five Hundred Years of Book Design. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001.

Benton, Michael. Studies in the spectator role: Literature, painting and pedagogy London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Bettley, James, ed. The Art of the Book: From Medieval Manuscript to Graphic Novel. London: V and A Publications, 2001.

Bland, David. The Illustration of Books. Faber and Faber, 1951.

Bland, David. A History of Book Illustration: The Illuminated Manuscript and the Printed Book. Second Edition. Faber and Faber, 1969.

Blewett, David. The Illustration of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920. Gerrards Cross :Colin Smythe, 1995.

Bonnell, Thomas Frank. The Most Disreputable Trade: publishing the classics of English poetry 1765-1810. OUP: 2008.

Brenni, Vito Joseph. Book Illustration and Decoration: A Guide to Research. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Breton, Rob. “Portraits of the Poor in Early Nineteenth-Century Radical Journalism,” Journal of Victorian Culture 21:2 (2016), 168-83.

Brewer, John. The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century. 1997; Routledge, 2013. Chapter 11, ‘Borrowing, Copying and Collecting’.

Briggs, Jo. Novelty Fair: British visual culture between Chartism and the Great Exhibition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Brown, John Buchanan. Early Victorian Illustrated Books: Britain, France and Germany 1820-1860. British Library and Oak Knoll Press, 2005.

Bryan, Michael. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers: Biographical and Critical. New ed., rev. and enl., ed. Robert Edmund Graves. London: G. Bell, 1886-1889.

Bryson, Norman et al, eds. Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation. CUP, 1991.

Burwick, Frederick. “James Gillray and the Aporia of Visual Hermeneutics,” Romantic Explorations. Ed.Michael Meyer. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2011. Pp. 85-103.

Burwick, Frederick.“The Hermeneutics of Lichtenberg’s Interpretation of Hogarth,” The Lessing Yearbook 19 (1987): 167‑191.

Burwick, Frederick. “Lessing’s Laokoon and the rise of Visual Hermeneutics,” Poetics Today XX, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 219-272.

Cale, Luisa. Fuseli’s Milton Gallery: ‘Turning readers into spectators’ . Clarendon Press, 2006.

Cubitt, Sean Digital Aesthetics. Sage 1998 [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/slade/digita/index.html]

Daly, Peter M. et al eds. Word and Visual Imagination. Germany, 1988.

Davidson, Peter. The Book Encompassed. 1992.

Dias, Rosemarie. ‘ “A World of Pictures”: Pall Mall and the Topography of Display, 1780-1799’ in Miles Ogborn and Charles Withers, Georgian Geographies: Space, Place and Landscape in the Eighteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

Eaves, Morris. ‘The sister arts in British Romanticism’. The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism. Second Edition Ed. Stuart Curran. CUP, 2010, 229-61.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. CUP, 1980.

Essick, Robert N. “Visual/Verbal Relationships in Book Illustration.” In British Art 1740-1820: Essays in Honor of Robert R. Wark. Ed Guilland Sutherland. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1992.

Frederick Faxon, Literary Annual and Gift Books: A Bibliography.1973.

Ferris, Ina, and Paul Keen, eds. Bookish Histories: Books, Literature, and Commercial Modernity, 1700-1900. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan 2009.

Finkelstein, David Book History Reader. Routledge, 2002.

Ford, Brian J. Images of Science: A History of Scientific Illustration. London: British Library, 1992; rpt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Fried, Michael. Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and the Beholder in the Age of Diderot. California UP, 1980.

Garside, Peter. ‘Illustrating the Waverley Novels: Scott, Scotland, and the London Print Trade, 1819-1836’, The Library, 11 (2010), 168-96.

Garside, Peter. ‘Print Illustrations and the Cultural Materialism of Scott’s Waverley Novels’, in British Literature and Print Culture, ed. Sandro Jung (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013), pp. 125-57.

Gerard, William Blake. Lawrence Sterne and the Visual Imagination. Ashgate, 2006.

Golden, Catherine J. Book Illustrated: Text, Image, and Culture 1770-1930. New Castle: Oak Knoll Press, 2000.

Goldman, Paul. ‘Defining Illustration Studies: Towards a New Academic Discipline’, Chapter 1 of Paul Goldman and Simon Cooke, eds, Reading Victorian Illustration, 1855-1875: Spoils of the Lumber Room. Ashgate 2012.

Gollapudi, Aparna. ‘Selling Celebrity: Actors’ Portraits in Bell’s Shakespeare and Bell’s British Theatre’. Eighteenth Century Life, Volume 36, Number 1, Winter 2012.

Gordon, Catherine M. British Painting of Subjects from the English Novel New York: Garland, 1988.

Hammelmann, Hanns. Book Illustrators in Eighteenth-Century England. Edited and completed by T.S.R. Boase. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1975.

Harris, Katherine D. “Fantasies of Containment: Archiving Moments in Cyber- and Real-Life.” Metaphors of Cyberspace. Ed. Caroline Maun.

Harthan, John. The History of the Illustrated Book: The Western Tradition. London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

Haywood, Ian, Romanticism and Caricature (CUP, 2013)

[Hazlitt], Sketches of the Principal Picture Galleries in England. 1824.

Heffernen, James A. W. ed., Space, Time, Image, Sign: Essays on Literature and the Visual Arts. Peter Lang, 1987.

Hill, Richard. ‘The Illustration of the Waverley Novels: Scott and Popular Illustrated Fiction’, Scottish Literary Review, 1.1 (2009), 69-88.

Hill, Richard. Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

Hillis Miller, J. Illustration. Reaktion Books, 1992.

Hodnett, Edward. Image and Text: Studies in the Illustration of English Literature. Scolar Press, 1982.

Hodnett, Edward. Five Centuries of English Book Illustration. Scolar Press, 1988.

Hofer, Philip. Eighteenth Century Book Illustration. Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1956.

Höltgen, Karl Josef, Peter M. Daly and Wolfgang Lottes, eds. Word and Visual Imagination: Studies in the Interaction of English Literature and the Visual Arts. Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1988.

Hunnisett, Basil. Steel Engraved Book Illustration in England. Scolar Press, 1980.

Ionescu, Christina and Renata Schellenberg eds. Word and Image in the Long Eighteenth Century: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008.

James, Philip. English bookillustration 1800-1900. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1947.

John, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago UP, 1998.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Illustrated Pocket Diaries and the Commodification of Culture’, Eighteenth-Century Life, 37.3 (2013): 53-84.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Packaging, Design and Colour: From Fine-Printed to Small-Format Editions of Thomson’s The Seasons, 1793-1802’ in Sandro Jung, ed, British Literature and Print Culture, The English Association Essays and Studies 66 (D. S. Brewer, 2013), 97-124.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Print Culture, High-Cultural Consumption, and Thomson’s The Seasons, 1780-1797′, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 44 (2011): 495-514.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Thomas Stothard’s Illustrations for The Royal Engagement Pocket Atlas, 1779-1826′, The Library, 12.1 (2011): 3-22.

Jung, Sandro. ‘Visual Interpretations, Print, and Illustrations of Thomson’s The Seasons, 1730–1797’. Eighteenth Century Life 34. 2 (Spring 2010), 23-64.

Katz, Bill, ed. A History of Book Illustration: 29 Points of View. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1994.

Keymer, Thomas and Peter Sabor. Pamela in the Marketplace: Literary Controversy and Print Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 2006). See especially chapter 5, “Illustrations and the Visual Culture of the Novel”.

Kress, Gunter, amd Theo van Leeuwen. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. Routledge, 1996.

Kroeber, Karl and William Walling. Images of Romanticism. New Haven: Yale UP, 1978.

Landseer, John. Lectures on the Art of Engraving. 1807.

Levarie, Norma. The Art and History of Books. New Castle: Oak Knoll Press, 1995.

Lewine, J. Bibliography of Eighteenth-Century Art and Illustrated Books: Being a Guide to Collections of Illustrated Works in English and French of the Period. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, 1898.

Matthews, Susan, Blake, Sexuality and Bourgeois Politeness. Cambridge: CUP, 2011.

Maxwell, Richard. The Victorian Illustrated Book. Virginia UP, 2002.

Melville, Stephen W. ed. Vision and Textuality. Macmillan, 1991.

Mitchell, W. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago UP, 1987.

Möller, Joachim (ed.). Imagination on a Long Rein: English Literature Illustrated. Marburg: Jonas, 1988.

Myrone, Martin, and Lucy Peltz, ed. Producing the Past: Aspects of Antiquarian Culture and Practice, 1700-1850. Preface by Stephen Bann. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999.

Piper, Andrew. Dreaming in Books: the making of the bibliographic imagination in the Romantic Period. Chicago, 2009.

Piper, David. The Image of the Poet. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.

Praz, Mario. Mnemosyne: The Parallel Between Literature and the Visual Arts. Princeton UP, 1970.

Rabb, Melinda. ‘Johnson, Lilliput and Eighteenth-Century Miniature’, Eighteenth Century Studies 46. 2 (2013)

Raven, James. Judging New Wealth: Popular Publishing and Responses to Commerce in England, 1750-1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Raven, James. The Business of Books 1450-1850 Yale UP 2007

Ray,Gordon N. The Illustrator and the Book in England from 1790-1914. Pierpont Morgan Library; Oxford University Press, 1976.

Read, Dennis M. R. H. Cromek: Engraver, Editor and Entrepreneur. Ashgate, 2011.

Sabor, Peter. ‘Illustrations of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920’ Eighteenth-Century Fiction. 9 (1996):122-124.

Sillars, Stuart. Illustrating Shakespeare (2008) and Painting Shakespeare (2006)

Shepherd, Lynn. Clarissa’s Painter. OUP, 2009.

Skilton, David. ‘The Relation between Illustration and Text in the Victorian Novel: A New Perspective’ in Höltgen, 303-19.

Solkin, David H. ed. Art on the Line: The Royal Academy Exhibitions at Somerset House 1780-1836. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 2001.

Solkin, David. Painting for Money: The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England. Yale UP, 1992.

Smiles,Sam. Eye Witness: Artists and Visual Documentation in Britain 1770-1830 . Ashgate, 2000.

Smith, Keith A. Structure of the Visual Book. 2003.

Stafford, Barbara. Good Looking: Essays on the Virtue of Images. MIT, 2003.

St Clair, William. The Reading Nation. CUP, 2004.

Stewart, Garrett, The Look of Reading: book, painting, text. Chicago UP, 2006.

Tattersfield, Nigel. John Bewick: Engraver on Wood, 1760-1795: An Appreciation of His Life, together with an Annotated Catalogue of his Illustrations and Designs. London: British Library; New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll, 2001.

Thackeray, ‘Pictures of Life and Character. By John Leech’ (1854), Critical Papers on Art. Macmillan, 1904.

Thomas. Julia. Pictorial Victorians: The Inscription of Value in Word and Image. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Thomas, Sophie. “Poetry and Illustration” in The Blackwell Companion to Romantic Poetry, ed. Charles Mahoney (Blackwell, 2011), pp. 354-373.

Wagner, Peter, ed. Icons, Texts, Iconotexts: Essays on Ekphrasis and Intermediality. Berlin, 1996.

Walters, Gwyn. “Developments in the Study of Book Illustration.” The Book Encompassed: Studies in Twentieth-Century Bibliography. Edited by Peter Davison. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Wendorf, Richard. Articulate Images: The Sister Arts from Hogarth to Tennyson. Minnesota UP, 1983.

Westover, Paul. ‘Illustration, Historicism, and Travel: The Legacy of Sir Walter Scott’, in Necromanticism: Traveling to Meet the Dead, 1750-1860 (Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 142-73.

Whiteley, William T. Artists and Their Friends in England, 1700-1799. 1928; reprinted New York: Benjamin Blom, 1968.

Recent Posts

Queen Caroline in Caricature: June 1820

Ian Haywood, University of Roehampton

Image: Robert Cruikshank, The Secret Insult (Museum Wilhelm Busch)

On this day (5 June) exactly two hundred years ago, one of the most high-profile political and sexual scandals in British history burst onto the cultural scene. The focus of this unprecedented media storm was Caroline of Brunswick, the estranged wife of the new king George IV, previously the Prince of Wales and Prince Regent.[1]

The pair had married in 1795 when George agreed a deal with parliament to pay off enormous gambling debts – amounting to millions of pounds today – in return for reforming his rakish ways. The marriage was a disaster: George was drunk during the wedding ceremony, and there were rumours that Caroline’s standards of hygiene were not of the highest (though typically, this criticism did not apply to the Prince). Moreover, George was already illicitly married to Maria Fitzherbert, and his mistress Lady Jersey was appointed as Caroline’s bedchamber lady. Though Caroline conceived her daughter Charlotte, George insisted on a separation, a decision that would come back to haunt him.

From 1796 until 1820, the royal couple led independent lives, but George launched several undercover investigations to try to expose Caroline’s allegedly promiscuous lifestyle, and he restricted her access to Princess Charlotte. In 1814 Caroline want into exile and only discovered the news of Charlotte’s death in 1817 by accident. When George III died in January 1820, Caroline asserted her claim to be the lawful Queen of Britain and announced her intention to return to England. The king was horrified and determined to stop her. But how to manage this dilemma? The country was in a state of political unrest, and the Queen was already regarded by many people as an injured wife and mother. Her cause was an ideal opportunity to rally anti-government protest in the wake of the Peterloo massacre, the draconian Six Acts against freedom of speech, and the executions of the Cato Street conspirators. Undeterred, and against the advice of his ministers, George had Caroline’s name struck off the Church of England liturgy and demanded a solution.

Just as their relationship had begun with a royal bribe, George assumed Caroline could be bought off and sent a delegation to intercept her journey through northern France. During the weekend of 3-4 June 1820, Lord Hutchinson and the rising Whig star Henry Brougham met with Caroline in the town of St Omer. They offered her an allowance of £50,000 per annum (an increase of £15,000 on her existing stipend) in return for the renunciation of her claim and permanent exile. If she refused, she was threatened with prosecution for adultery. Caroline rejected the offer, resumed her journey to Calais, and arrived at Dover on 5 June 1820. Huge crowds of ecstatic fans welcomed her return and she was mobbed all the way to London.

For the remainder of the year, her story dominated the press and Romantic print culture. The media explosion was unprecedented: millions of words appeared in newspapers, periodicals, pamphlets, trial reports, Addresses, prayers, poems, broadsides and placards.[2] Caroline’s persecution seemed to capture the imagination of the whole country. The Times summed up the public mood in its report of her homecoming: ‘The Queen of England is at present every thing with every body’ (7 July 1820). Caroline represented a new force in British politics: public opinion.[3] Though the vast majority of the population had no vote, they were able to express their views through the ‘fourth estate’ of the press and traditional ‘out-door’ methods of agitation such as petitioning, Addresses, rallies, processions, charivari, threat-letters, window-smashing and effigy-burning. The flagrant hypocrisy and double standards of the accusations against Caroline’s sexual morality revived feminist arguments which had been dormant since the ‘Jacobin’ 1790s,[4] and the dubious legality of the trial was seized on by liberals and radicals as a prime example of political corruption. Lacking any independent access to the corridors of power, Caroline knew that her only chance of success was to appeal directly to the power of the people and the vox populi.

The mobilization of a popular front of oppositional Romantic politics and print was remarkable in its scale and intensity, and central to its success was the contribution that visual culture played in Caroline’s rise to political celebrity. In addition to the wide circulation of engraved portraits, medallions and other visual memorabilia, her story was a field-day for the caricaturists. Hundreds of satirical prints and illustrated pamphlets appeared in her favour, and after the collapse of her trial in late 1820 her opponents also turned to caricature to enhance their counter-offensive.

There were numerous reasons for the popularity and efficacy of Georgian caricature. It was a unique art form which combined political reportage with unbridled and entertaining fantasy; it was able to respond quickly and memorably to political events and it operated outside of conventional aesthetic and ethical norms. This imaginative freedom created a parallel visual universe in which public figures re-enacted and reconfigured newsworthy incidents according to a satirical logic of inversion, irony. allusion and parody.[5] The result was a compelling debunking of official ideology and the stripping away of polite codes of reverence and respect that frequently shielded and mystified social and political power. This anarchic tendency was often balanced by an apparent championing of an identifiable cause or faction, though on closer inspection this advocacy could prove to be unstable, and the consumer of caricatures had to be on their guard for surprises and traps.

The power of Carolinite caricature can be illustrated by looking at the response to her arrival in Britain. Within days of her spectacular ‘remigration’, Robert Cruikshank’s The Secret Insult; or Bribery and Corruption rejected!!! was published by the radical activist William Benbow. This collaboration reflected the significant role that radical publishers played in defining Caroline’s satirical identity. The field was led by the formidable partnership of William Hone and Robert’s more famous brother George Cruikshank, closely followed by the now-forgotten John Fairburn, Thomas Dolby, Benbow and John Cahuac.[6] The Secret Insult is a striking, proto-feminist idealization of Caroline’s authority, presence and prowess. In order to make her homecoming more mythic and symbolic, Cruikshank transplants the St Omer incident to a reimagined arrival on the shores of Britain. Instead of the cheering crowds of Dover, the scene fantasizes a stand-off between the forces of good and evil which is more reminiscent of an invasion tableau, except that the usual roles are reversed and it is the defenders who are in the wrong. The confrontation is semiotically and sartorially polarized into two trios: on the right side we see the proud, stern, virtuous, magisterial and upright figures of a modestly-attired Caroline, her advisor Alderman Wood in Roman armour and (not to be ignored) a patriotic frigate; on the left side, the compromised, obsequious, cringing, untrustworthy, cowardly and evasive figures of a cowed Hutchinson and a Brougham who has his back to the viewer and is confessing his discomfort to the devil.

The textual components of the print indicate its political sympathies and typically bring into play a range of allegorical, cultural and topical allusions: Wood’s ‘Shield for the Innocent’ and fiery sword of justice are stock emblems which glorify (even to the point of being tongue-in-cheek) Caroline’s elevated and iconic status; ‘The Wooden Walls of England’ inscribed on the frigate refers to a popular patriotic naval song and reflects Caroline’s alarming popularity with the rank-and-file of the armed forces;[7] the scroll of ‘Lawful Claims’ in her left hand countermands the forthcoming ‘Bill of Pains and Penalties’ against her; and the speech bubbles reduce the fastidious press reports of St Omer and Dover into populist soundbites. In response to Hutchinson’s fawning offer to ‘change your name & livery & retire to some distant part of the earth w[h]ere you may never be seen or heard any more; & if 50,000£ pr annum will not satisfy you, what will?’  – the latter an example of the ‘excessive profligacy of the age we live in’ according to the Times – Caroline simply replies ‘Nothing but a Crown!’[8] The retort gains added, if ironic force, from the echo of Proverbs 12.4: ‘A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband;/ But she that maketh ashamed is as rottenness in his bones’.[9] This sums up the opposing sides of her case and highlights how she is forced to defy patriarchal norms in order to conform to them and achieve her rightful place as the king’s consort.

Compared to the emissary’s flaccid money bags, she has the same columnal, phallic solidity as her (ludicrously classicized) protector Alderman Wood. Brougham’s embarrassed and unchivalrous back-turning suggests a radical mistrust of ‘secret’ Whig motives and backroom deals. In this respect the title of the print is actually something of a self-referring or self-cancelling misnomer as the whole ‘secret’ escapade was widely reported in the press, including the publication of supposedly confidential documents. Indeed, Caroline demanded to see the offer in writing and thereby initiated a recirculating paper trail that rebutted the notorious obscurity of the government’s Committee of Secrecy and its much-lampooned Green Bags of evidence. As the only uncaricatured figure in the scene, Caroline embodies the open, masculine qualities of civic republicanism: even though her motives are self-aggrandising and ambitious, it is clearly her duty to re-enter Britain and restore its moral and political fibre, sweeping away Old Corruption and its disreputable practices. She is the new broom (Brougham) of British politics. In the words of John Fairburn’s broadside On the Return of Queen Caroline to England,

Not fifty thousand pounds, nor fifty more,
Nor all the wealth that Britain has in store,
Could tempt the mind, in conscious virtue bold,
To barter innocence for sordid gold.[10]

The tension between the legal and moral definitions of ‘innocence’ would eventually prove to be Caroline’s undoing. Her controversy raised but could not resolve the protracted issues of women’s rights and freedoms in a patriarchal society. But for all its limitations and blind spots, the gender politics of the campaign was one of its enduring legacies. As the Examiner opined, ‘adultery is either a crime in every body, or it is not’ and the paper even hinted that a guilty verdict would expose the double standard: ‘men, generally speaking, indulge themselves as they please, and yet demand all the while fidelity from the women’ (11 June 1820). The controversy politicised many women and gave a voice to their concerns. This is the reason why the St Omer episode is so important, as it set the stage for female defiance, resistance and self-assertion.

William Hone hoped that ‘the answer of her Majesty were put into the hands of every man and woman in England – never was a finer compliment paid to the English nation’.[11] This was a vision of a democratic public sphere which Hone himself went some way to achieving through his own cheap publications, including his phenomenally successful illustrated satirical pamphlets. Though the popularity and social reach of caricature is still hotly disputed by scholars, visual satire made a unique contribution to the formation of public opinion in the Caroline affair. The sheer volume of prints that appeared, and their remarkable resourcefulness in creating new iterations of the key episodes in the controversy, is a fitting ‘compliment’ to the Golden Age of British caricature.

For more information, see the History Hub’s video on the Queen Caroline affair, presented by Dr Katie Carpenter in the Parliamentary Archives:


[1] A good recent biography is Jane Robins, Rebel Queen: How the Trial of Caroline Brought England to the Brink of Revolution (London: Simon and Schuster, 2006).

[2] According to Thomas Lacquer, the Caroline controversy was ‘popular as no previous political movement had been…the sheer volume of propaganda was staggering…[and it]  saturated the whole country’ (‘The Queen Caroline Affair: Politics as Art in the Reign of George IV’, Journal of Modern History (September 1982): 417-466, 429-30. Malcolm Chase agrees: ‘Queenite literature arguably constituted the greatest publishing phenomenon of the early nineteenth century’ (1820: Disorder and Stability in the United Kingdom (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), 179.

[3] For Dror Wahrmann, public opinion in the Caroline controversy was regarded as ‘the ultimate key to the political process – an omnipotent, infallible, supreme arbiter’ (‘Public opinion, violence, and the limits of constitutional politics’, in James Vernon, ed. Re-Reading the Constitution: New Narratives in the Political History of England’s long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) 83-122, 90).

[4] Anna Clarke, Scandal: The Sexual Politics of the British Constitution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), Chapter 8; Kristin Flieger Samuelian, Royal Romances: Sex, Scandal and Monarchy in Print, 1780-1821 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), Chapter 4.

[5] Ian Haywood, Romanticism and Caricature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); David Francis Taylor, The Politics of Parody: A Literary History of Caricature, 1760-1830 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2018).

[6] In subsequent posts I will look at prints and publications by all these figures.

[7] A version by Henry Green was printed in 1773: see http://spenserians.cath.vt.edu/TextRecord.php?&action=GET&textsid=34845 Accessed 3/6/20. The irony of course is that the vaunted British navy’s function was to keep invaders out. On 15 June, just four days after The Secret Insult was published, the Third Regiment of Guards mutinied in Caroline’s favour. The Duke of Wellington declared: ‘Thus, in one of the most critical moments that ever occurred in this country, we and the public have reason to doubt in the fidelity of the troops, the only security we have, not only against revolution but for the property and life of every individual in the country who has anything to lose’ (cited in Robins, Rebel Queen, 128).

[8] According to the Times (6 June), Caroline replied, ‘My determination is soon formed: I shall set out instantly for England — it is in London, and London alone, that I shall consent to consider any proposals.’ William Hone added an even more defiant flourish: ‘Go – inform your Master  – that in London, and in London alone, I will consent to consider of any proposal of the King of England’ (The King’s Treatment of the Queen Shortly Stated to the People of the England (London: William Hone, 1820), 20).

[9] The Bible: Authorized Version (London: British and Foreign Bible Society,1963) 520.

[10] A copy is pasted into a collection of Carolinite broadsides in the British Library.

[11] Hone, the King’s Treatment of the Queen, 20.

George Cruikshank, Ah! sure such a pair was never seen so justly form’d to meet by natutre (Museum Wilhelm Busch)

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